Before landing in France on D-Day, June 6, 1944, the Allies executed an elaborate deception plan designed to prevent the Germans from concentrating forces in Normandy. The lesser-known first part, Fortitude North, suggested a threat to Norway. The more famous Fortitude South indicated that the invasion would occur at the Pas de Calais rather than Normandy, largely by creating a fictitious army group under Gen. George S. Patton. While historians have generally praised Operation Fortitude, Barbier takes a more nuanced view, arguing that the deception, while implemented well, affected the invasion's outcome only minimally.
Mary Kathryn Barbier is a professor of history at Mississippi State University, where she teaches American history, military history, and grand strategy. She is also the author of Kursk (978-0-7603-1254-4) and coauthor of Strategy and Tactics (978-0-7603-1401-2).